Memory is the glue that binds us – and it's malleable, not just by us but by others. Are we ready to have our memories controlled? Dieser Film läuft zur Zeit nicht. Überprüfen Sie die aktuelle Verfügbarkeit von "NOVA: Memory Hackers ()" um es auf Netflix Portugal, sowie in 30 anderen Ländern zu sehen. Zuletzt. koneruhumpy.com - Kaufen Sie Memory Hackers günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer.
Memory Hackers (2016) (de)Digimon Story Cyber Sleuth Hackers Memory, Mods, APK, PC, Xbox, Controls, Download, Tips, VSYNC, Cheats, Game Guide Unofficial. The Yuw. 4,49 €. 4,49 €. Überprüfen Sie die aktuelle Verfügbarkeit von "NOVA: Memory Hackers ()" um es auf Netflix Portugal, sowie in 30 anderen Ländern zu sehen. Zuletzt. koneruhumpy.com - Kaufen Sie Nova: Memory Hackers günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer.
Memory Hackers Explore More VideoMemory Hackers - APEX LEGENDS FREE HACK 2021 Season 7
What happens in your brain each time you recollect a past experience? That's what Karim Nader wondered. His quest for answers started when he was a grad student at one of Kandel's lectures.
KARIM NADER McGill University : Eric Kandel came and gave this brilliant talk. He had beautiful pictures, showing synapses could grow over time.
The work is very elegant. It took everyone's breath away. KARIM NADER: Why would all of this happen just once? Wouldn't it be cool if it all happened again when you recalled the memory?
NARRATOR: If Kandel's work helped establish that memories can't form without new proteins that build new connections, what happens to those connections when you remember something?
STEVE RAMIREZ: The underlying dogma was that, when you formed a memory, it was filed away in your brain, and that's it.
NARRATOR: So when you remember your first kiss, you pull out that book, look at it, and put it back. Though it may fade over time or get lost in the stacks, the original story, or memory, is always still there.
Nader wondered, could this really be true? Is it possible that just the act of recalling the memory could rewrite the story?
To find out, Nader designed an experiment. JOE LEDOUX: When Karim told me he wanted to do that experiment, I probably said something like, "Don't do it.
Don't waste your time. NARRATOR: Just like Kandel's sea slugs, the rats quickly learn to fear the tone alone.
They have formed a long-term memory that the tone predicts shock. So, every time it hears the tone…. KARIM NADER: So you see, even though there's no shock, the animal's freezing.
It's afraid. NARRATOR: We know the rats' brains have built new connections to store the memory. But what happens to those connections when the rat recalls the memory?
To find out, Nader first plays the tone to remind the rat of his fear, and when he freezes,…. NARRATOR: The compound is anisomycin, a drug known to block the proteins needed to build the connections that store new memories.
But Nader's rats have already formed the memory; they're just recalling it. If memory consolidation really is like a book in a library, the drug should have no effect.
The rats' brains should have built a permanent memory, and they should still freeze when they hear the tone. KARIM NADER: So, if the memory is wired in the brain, this drug should have absolutely no effect.
KARIM NADER: You would think the animal should be freezing, if it still had the memory there, but now it is acting as if the memory has been erased from its mind.
NARRATOR: …as if it never learned to fear the tone in the first place. The memory appears to be gone. KARIM NADER: My jaw just dropped.
I couldn't believe it. So I ran into my supervisor's office going "[Expletive] I can't [expletive] believe this happened.
NARRATOR: Because a drug known to block the formation of new memories also blocked them during recall, it means the act of remembering must make the memories vulnerable to change.
KELSEY MARTIN: It's not this, "you have a memory, you encode it and it's stuck there. ERIC KANDEL: Nader's discovery that any time you recall a memory you essentially disrupt it was a significant advance.
STEVE RAMIREZ: It turns out, memory is not at all, actually, like putting a book away in the library of the brain, but it's more like bringing up a file on your computer and constantly modifying that file.
NARRATOR: The theory is every time you recall something, you have pull it up off the hard drive to view it. For it to return to long-term memory, you have to hit "save" and reconsolidate the memory, by creating new proteins to essentially rewire the memory into your brain.
DANIELA SCHILLER: Imagine something precious in a box. And then each time you take it out, it changes a little bit.
And then you put it back. Then take it out, changes a little bit. That's how your memory works. NARRATOR: The idea that the simple act of remembering could make your memories vulnerable to change transformed our understanding of memory.
Within a few years, Nader's findings were replicated in dozens of species and led to over a thousand experiments, and even, reportedly, inspired the movie Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.
But what if this isn't just the stuff of movies? What if it's possible to use reconsolidation in humans? Perhaps to erase certain memories in all of us, like the ones that keep you up at night.
WOMAN 2: I can't tell you the last time I've been in a pool, the last time I owned a bathing suit. But, I mean the water gets, probably right here, and it's like "huu huu uhh uhh.
SASHA COHEN: Terrified; if I see a spider, I don't want to come near it. I'm really scared of spiders, or, at least, I used to be. But now, I am just completely relaxed, sitting here with a tarantula.
It is really crazy. NARRATOR: Ever since she was a little girl, Sasha de Waal has been plagued by her fear of spiders.
But thanks to a new therapy, using reconsolidation, that fear seems to have been erased. NARRATOR: The scientist who cured Sasha is Professor Merel Kindt, at the University of Amsterdam.
When she heard about Karim Nader's work, she immediately saw the potential. MEREL KINDT: I was really thrilled. I realized that, if this is going to work for humans, this is very important news.
NARRATOR: Using reconsolidation, she has a developed a treatment to erase patients' lifelong fears. MEREL KINDT'S PATIENT: As long as I can remember, I am afraid of them.
They just scare me. MEREL KINDT'S PATIENT: When I sleep, I dream about it. I am very scared. I just dream about it. MEREL KINDT: For the treatment, we will walk to the other side of the room, and there is terrarium with a tarantula in it.
I am going to ask you to touch the tarantula, okay? NARRATOR: Just like with Nader's rats, the first step is to get Jeroen to draw up the memory of his fear.
MEREL KINDT: We ask our participants to approach the tarantula, which triggers the original fear memory. MEREL KINDT: You are doing very well.
Try to look here. Don't avoid it. Stay here. It is important that you see it. Just put your hand here and stop. What do you think will happen?
It is just a fear. NARRATOR: Propanolol is a blood-pressure medication that blocks the release of noradrenaline in the amygdala, the fear center of the brain.
Since noradrenaline is part of the brain's anxiety signal during a fearful event, blocking it after recall seems disrupt the reconsolidation, the fear part of the memory.
MEREL KINDT: What is very important is that it is not a "forget" pill. If we do not trigger the memory reactivation, the drug will not work.
MEREL KINDT: We are going to do this again. We are going to go to the other side of the room, and I am going to ask you again to touch the spider.
MEREL KINDT: Yes, very…yes, very good, very good, yes, yes. How does it feel to touch a tarantula? NARRATOR: So far Kindt's repeated this work in over 30 people with spider phobia and other anxiety disorders and….
NARRATOR: But, in fact, the therapy worked in every spider-phobe she tested, even a year later.
It's like a contradiction with how I used to feel and how I feel. It is so strange, like I am someone else now. MEREL KINDT: We, of course, cannot prove that we delete or even erase the original fear memory, because we can only observe the new behavior.
But given that the fear does not come back, we hypothesize that the previously formed memories are in fact deleted.
NARRATOR: Treating people with spider phobia is only the first step. Kindt is now among a handful of scientists using reconsolidation to treat a variety of human disorders, from drug addiction to P.
And though the research is in its infancy, early results have been promising. MEREL KINDT: I am very hopeful that the reconsolidation intervention will be further developed for people with post-traumatic stress disorder.
NARRATOR: But reconsolidation is more than just a therapeutic tool. If the act of recalling a memory makes it vulnerable to change, it may also provide a biological explanation for something we've known all along, that our memory is often an unreliable narrator.
ELIZABETH LOFTUS University of California, Irvine : I believe that my earliest memory was a very happy memory of going to a movie called The Greatest Show on Earth.
And it wasn't until much later that I found out that the movie was released when I was eight years old. So, it couldn't have been my earliest memory.
NARRATOR: This comes as no surprise to Elizabeth Loftus. She's spent the last 40 years exploring exactly how unreliable our memory is. ELIZABETH LOFTUS: I think people ought to pay more attention to the fact that there are memory errors all around them.
NARRATOR: Her work has inspired a generation of researchers, including psychologist Julia Shaw. JULIA SHAW: The question isn't, "Do we have false memories?
NARRATOR: To find out how wrong, Shaw has designed, perhaps, the most comprehensive study ever on false memory. She starts by recruiting over a hundred people for what they think is a study about their childhood memories.
The first event is a time when you were twelve, when you moved from Trinidad to Kelowna with your family. NARRATOR: But, actually, the study is to see if it's possible to implant a false memory about committing a crime.
JULIA SHAW: I had colleagues saying, "This isn't going to work. There's no way you will get individuals to think that they committed a crime that never happened.
NARRATOR: She begins with a true event, gathered from their parents—in this case a family move. NARRATOR: But this was just a trick to gain trust.
The next step is to introduce the false memory—a fight so severe that the police were called. JULIA SHAW: So, the other event that your parents report happening was, when you were 14 years old, you initiated a physical fight, and the police called your parents.
They said it happened in Kelowna, in the fall, and you were with Ryan when it happened. NARRATOR: Only two of the details are real: the name of the best friend and the place she lived at the time.
The rest is made up. I don't know what you are talking about. I feel like I have never been in a fight.
I'm so confused. NARRATOR: She then turns to series of cognitive techniques known to induce false memories, starting with an imagination exercise.
JULIA SHAW: I'd like you to relax. Close your eyes, and focus your attention on trying to retrieve this memory. JULIA SHAW: Subtly introducing this notion that it works for most people, if they try hard enough, which is a subtle form of social manipulation.
NARRATOR: …and one by one, asks the participant to visualize certain details of the story. DAN SCHACTER: When people imagine events that might have occurred in their past, we know that that's a potent way of creating a false memory.
JULIA SHAW: She is starting to picture how it could have happened. And what could have been, turns into what would have been, turns into what was.
NARRATOR: And it wasn't just this once. Shaw was able to convince over 70 percent of her participants that they committed a crime.
JULIA SHAW: I was incredibly surprised at the rate that I had in terms of successfully implanting these false memories. NARRATOR: And the ramifications go way beyond fooling college students.
False memory studies, like this, question one of the cornerstones of the criminal justice system. ELIZABETH LOFTUS: In those hundreds of cases where D.
NARRATOR: So, if our memories are more malleable than we think, and we can change them, even erase some of them, what's next? Will there ever be day when, at just the push of a button, we can implant or edit specific memories at will.
This idea will define him. It may come to change, it may come to change everything about him. STEVE RAMIREZ: Movies like Inception, Total Recall, Eternal Sunshine…, of course they're possible.
If mice had Hollywood, then it's possible, in practice, right now. NARRATOR: In fact, here, at Columbia University, Christine Denny is one of a handful of neuroscientists who can do just that.
CHRISTINE DENNY: It does seem like a science fiction, but we are really doing Inception, in our lab, with turning on and off memories. NARRATOR: It's called optogenetics, a technique so revolutionary it allows us to not only map a specific memory, but manipulate it with lasers—at least in these little guys.
CHRISTINE DENNY: You could not tell my mice apart from a mouse on the street or wherever you would go to a pet store and buy a mouse.
They don't look any different. NARRATOR: …but they are. These are genetically modified mice that allow Denny to record specific memories and turn them on and off at will.
To demonstrate, she starts by putting a mouse in a new environment. CHRISTINE DENNY: You can see that the mouse is just sitting here, in the corner, freezing, basically, scared of the environment.
NARRATOR: That's because it's bright; there's no place to hide. But the goal isn't to frighten mice.
She wants to see if she can override this fear by playing back a happy memory she recorded yesterday. NARRATOR: Yesterday, this same mouse got to explore the kind of place it naturally likes: dimly lit, full of soft bedding, with a nice place to hide.
And, while he was scurrying around, Denny recorded the exact neurons that fired when he made a memory of that pleasant place. CHRISTINE DENNY: The cells that are labeled, here, in green, when I turn on the laser, those cells will turn on the memory.
NARRATOR: But how? How do you record a specific memory? And how do you get brain cells to respond to light?
Here's where the sci-fi wizardry comes in. CHRISTINE DENNY: We genetically engineered mice so that we can permanently label an individual memory.
NARRATOR: The key is this mouse's special genome: they're bred to carry a piece of D. In nature, that protein allows the algae to respond to light.
In Denny's mice, it just sits there quietly in the mouse's genome, not doing anything, until…. CHRISTINE DENNY: You inject a drug, right before you expose them to this positive experience.
NARRATOR: …the drug switches that gene on, telling any brain cells that fire within the hour to install this light-sensitive protein on their surfaces.
As the mouse is exploring a pleasant environment, any neurons that fire will leave a "footprint" of the memory in the mouse's brain.
After the drug wears off, only those cells will respond to light, meaning…. CHRISTINE DENNY: It's basically like a switch. So what you can then do is use a laser to control these cells.
CHRISTINE DENNY: And so what we're going to try to do now is to turn on these cells that we've labeled, with a positive memory. NARRATOR: Right now, the mouse is still scared, but, if Denny is right, the laser should activate the exact same neurons that fired when the mouse was making a happy memory, effectively causing it to relive that positive experience.
CHRISTINE DENNY: Okay, so watch, now, what happens when I'm going to turn this laser on. You can see that the animal's actually moving, smelling, grooming himself, which is a sign that he feels safe.
CHRISTINE DENNY: I think, the first time we did it, we didn't believe it. When you see inside of the brains of these mice, and you can see how you're only manipulating those cells and changing the behavioral output of the animal, that's, yeah, science fiction.
DAN SCHACTER: This is potentially one of the most important new developments in memory research, because it suggests a level and precision of control over memory that we've really never seen before.
NARRATOR: A degree of precision many scientists think we might have over our memories someday. STEVE RAMIREZ: I think that it's a matter of when this happens, not a matter of if it'll happen, in people.
NARRATOR: Which raises the question, if, by a flick of a switch, we could edit that first kiss or erase that argument with a spouse, would we want to?
MATT WALKER: What scientists, now, are starting to realize is that we can modify memories in some remarkable ways.
The question is, how do we think about that? By starting to manipulate those memories, are we suggesting that evolution got it wrong? ELIZABETH LOFTUS: Why would we be constructed with a memory system that is so potentially open to suggestion and change?
NARRATOR: Perhaps Jake, the year-old boy with the amazing memory, can help answer that question one day. After months of scans, scientists are still searching for something in his brain to explain his extraordinary ability, but even if they don't find anything, that would be an important clue.
NICO DOSENBACH: Jake's already telling us something about our memories, namely that the human brain has the capability to remember your entire life in great detail.
It's a fascinating question of, "Why don't we? NARRATOR: Consider Jake. Though he and other H. JAKE HAUSLER: Just like to everything, there's an upside and a downside.
The downside is you can't forget every bad thing that happens to you. JIM MCGAUGH: They live in different worlds than, than the worlds that you and I live in.
And you have to wonder, would you like to live in that world? Perhaps evolution was smart enough to design a system that stores only the stuff that's important.
NARRATOR: Could it be that what we think of as memory's flaws are actually part of its strength? KELSEY MARTIN: Maybe we have a misconception of what the purpose of memory is, that we think of it more as an accurate recording of past experiences, as opposed to a creative process of combining our experiences over time.
MATT WALKER: Perhaps the ultimate goal of memory is not to retain every single fact that you've learned. If you had just this picture-perfect back catalogue, of 30, 40, 50, 60 years of experience, imagine how hard it would be to pick out the individual, specific experiences that you need at any one moment against the backdrop of that sea of noise.
NARRATOR: Somehow, this complex choreography of single cells adds up to our memory, a mysterious system that allows us to time-travel to the past and imagine our future.
But perhaps memory's ultimate gift is a way to navigate that sea of noise, so we can pick out the experiences that each of us weave together to tell the story of our lives.
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Season 43 Episode 7 53m 7s Video has closed captioning. Memory is the glue that binds our mental lives. From our first kiss to where we put our keys, memory represents who we are and how we learn and navigate the world.
But how does it work? Neuroscientists using cutting-edge techniques are exploring the precise molecular mechanisms of memory. Problems Playing Video?
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